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Common Upper gastrointestinal haemmorhage exam questions for medical finals, OSCEs and MRCP PACES


Question 1.

Define the term UGI haemorrhage in terms of its source of origin.

  • Bleeding that arises proximal to the ligament of Treitz i.e. from the oesophagus, stomach or duodenum


Question 2.

List the two main causes of UGI haemorrhage.

  • Peptic ulcer disease
  • Oesophageal varices


Question 3.

List the signs of chronic liver disease that you would look for in a patient with UGI haemorrhage.

  • Clubbing
  • Dupuytren’s contracture
  • Palmar erythema
  • Jaundice
  • Spider naevi
  • Gynaecomastia
  • Ascites
  • Splenomegaly
  • Caput medusa
  • Testicular atrophy


Question 4.

What tool is used to risk stratify patients with UGI haemorrhage?

  • Pre-endoscopy Rockall score


Question 5.

List the three components of this risk stratification tool.

  • Age
  • Shock
  • Co-morbidities


Question 6.

What is the definitive investigation and management of UGI haemorrhage?

  • UGI endoscopy


Question 7.

What pharmacological components are there to managing UGI haemorrhage?

  • Fluid resuscitation
  • Antibiotics
  • Terlipressin
  • PPI IV post-endoscopy


Question 8.

What non-pharmacological procedure may be life-saving in torrential UGI haemorrhage due to oesophageal varices?

  • Sengstaken-Blakemore tube