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What are the causes of clubbing?


  • Infective endocarditis
  • Cyanotic congential heart disease
  • Atrial myxoma
  • Lung cancer (all except small cell)
  • Chronic suppurative lung disease (cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, lung abscess, empyema)
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • [NOT COPD]
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (or other cause of chronic malabsorption)
  • Cirrhosis
  • GI Lymphoma
  • Thyrotoxicosis (thyroid acropachy)
  • Hereditary


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